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Such storms are rarely severe and are a result of local atmospheric instability; hence the term "air mass thunderstorm". When such storms have a brief period of severe weather associated with them, it is known as a pulse severe storm.
Pulse severe storms are poorly organized and occur randomly in time and space, making them difficult to forecast. This is the most common type of thunderstorm development.
Mature thunderstorms are found near the center of the cluster, while dissipating thunderstorms exist on their downwind side.
Multicell storms form as clusters of storms but may then evolve into one or more squall lines. They often arise from convective updrafts in or near mountain ranges and linear weather boundaries, such as strong cold fronts or troughs of low pressure.
These type of storms are stronger than the single-cell storm, yet much weaker than the supercell storm. Hazards with the multicell cluster include moderate-sized hail, flash flooding, and weak tornadoes.
A squall line is an elongated line of severe thunderstorms that can form along or ahead of a cold front. Supercell storms are large, usually severe , quasi-steady-state storms that form in an environment where wind speed or wind direction varies with height " wind shear " , and they have separate downdrafts and updrafts i.
These storms normally have such powerful updrafts that the top of the supercell storm cloud or anvil can break through the troposphere and reach into the lower levels of the stratosphere.
In fact, research has shown that most tornadoes occur from this type of thunderstorm. A severe thunderstorm warning is issued if a thunderstorm becomes severe, or will soon turn severe.
However, multicell , supercell , and squall lines represent the most common forms of thunderstorms that produce severe weather. A mesoscale convective system MCS is a complex of thunderstorms that becomes organized on a scale larger than the individual thunderstorms but smaller than extratropical cyclones , and normally persists for several hours or more.
Most mesoscale convective systems develop overnight and continue their lifespan through the next day. Forms of MCS that develop in the tropics are found in use either the Intertropical Convergence Zone or monsoon troughs , generally within the warm season between spring and fall.
More intense systems form over land than over water. They form at high latitudes during the cold season. The two major ways thunderstorms move are via advection of the wind and propagation along outflow boundaries towards sources of greater heat and moisture.
Many thunderstorms move with the mean wind speed through the Earth's troposphere , the lowest 8 kilometres 5.
Weaker thunderstorms are steered by winds closer to the Earth's surface than stronger thunderstorms, as the weaker thunderstorms are not as tall.
Organized, long-lived thunderstorm cells and complexes move at a right angle to the direction of the vertical wind shear vector.
If the gust front, or leading edge of the outflow boundary, races ahead of the thunderstorm, its motion will accelerate in tandem.
This is more of a factor with thunderstorms with heavy precipitation HP than with thunderstorms with low precipitation LP.
When thunderstorms merge, which is most likely when numerous thunderstorms exist in proximity to each other, the motion of the stronger thunderstorm normally dictates the future motion of the merged cell.
The stronger the mean wind, the less likely other processes will be involved in storm motion. On weather radar , storms are tracked by using a prominent feature and tracking it from scan to scan.
A back-building thunderstorm, commonly referred to as a training thunderstorm , is a thunderstorm in which new development takes place on the upwind side usually the west or southwest side in the Northern Hemisphere , such that the storm seems to remain stationary or propagate in a backward direction.
Though the storm often appears stationary on radar, or even moving upwind, this is an illusion. The storm is really a multi-cell storm with new, more vigorous cells that form on the upwind side, replacing older cells that continue to drift downwind.
In Rapid City, South Dakota , in , an unusual alignment of winds at various levels of the atmosphere combined to produce a continuously training set of cells that dropped an enormous quantity of rain upon the same area, resulting in devastating flash flooding.
Each year, many people are killed or seriously injured by severe thunderstorms despite the advance warning [ citation needed ]. While severe thunderstorms are most common in the spring and summer , they can occur at just about any time of the year.
Cloud-to-ground lightning frequently occurs within the phenomena of thunderstorms and have numerous hazards towards landscapes and populations.
One of the more significant hazards lightning can pose is the wildfires they are capable of igniting. Acid rain is also a frequent risk produced by lightning.
Distilled water has a neutral pH of 7. Acid rain can damage infrastructures containing calcite or certain other solid chemical compounds.
In ecosystems, acid rain can dissolve plant tissues of vegetations and increase acidification process in bodies of water and in soil , resulting in deaths of marine and terrestrial organisms.
Any thunderstorm that produces hail that reaches the ground is known as a hailstorm. Hail is more common along mountain ranges because mountains force horizontal winds upwards known as orographic lifting , thereby intensifying the updrafts within thunderstorms and making hail more likely.
Cheyenne, Wyoming is North America's most hail-prone city with an average of nine to ten hailstorms per season.
Hail can cause serious damage, notably to automobiles , aircraft, skylights, glass-roofed structures, livestock , and most commonly, farmers' crops.
When hail stones exceed 13 millimetres 0. Wheat, corn, soybeans, and tobacco are the most sensitive crops to hail damage. One of the earliest recorded incidents occurred around the 9th century in Roopkund , Uttarakhand , India.
A tornado is a violent, rotating column of air in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud otherwise known as a thundercloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Tornadoes come in many sizes but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel , whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
The Fujita scale and the Enhanced Fujita Scale rate tornadoes by damage caused. An EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees but does not cause significant damage to structures.
An EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers. Waterspouts have similar characteristics as tornadoes, characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current that form over bodies of water, connecting to large cumulonimbus clouds.
Waterspouts are generally classified as forms of tornadoes, or more specifically, non- supercelled tornadoes that develop over large bodies of water.
Flash flooding is the process where a landscape, most notably an urban environment, is subjected to rapid floods. Flash floods are most common in densely populated urban environments, where few plants and bodies of water are present to absorb and contain the extra water.
Flash flooding can be hazardous to small infrastructure, such as bridges, and weakly constructed buildings. Plants and crops in agricultural areas can be destroyed and devastated by the force of raging water.
Automobiles parked within affected areas can also be displaced. Soil erosion can occur as well, exposing risks of landslide phenomena.
Downburst winds can produce numerous hazards to landscapes experiencing thunderstorms. Downburst winds are generally very powerful, and are often mistaken for wind speeds produced by tornadoes,  due to the concentrated amount of force exerted by their straight-horizontal characteristic.
Downburst winds can be hazardous to unstable, incomplete, or weakly constructed infrastructures and buildings. Agricultural crops, and other plants in nearby environments can be uprooted and damaged.
Aircraft engaged in takeoff or landing can crash. Downburst winds are usually formed in areas when high pressure air systems of downdrafts begin to sink and displace the air masses below it, due to their higher density.
When these downdrafts reach the surface, they spread out and turn into the destructive straight-horizontal winds.
Thunderstorm asthma is the triggering of an asthma attack by environmental conditions directly caused by a local thunderstorm. During a thunderstorm, pollen grains can absorb moisture and then burst into much smaller fragments with these fragments being easily dispersed by wind.
While larger pollen grains are usually filtered by hairs in the nose, the smaller pollen fragments are able to pass through and enter the lungs, triggering the asthma attack.
Most thunderstorms come and go fairly uneventfully; however, any thunderstorm can become severe , and all thunderstorms, by definition, present the danger of lightning.
Preparedness refers to precautions that should be taken before a thunderstorm. Some preparedness takes the form of general readiness as a thunderstorm can occur at any time of the day or year.
The National Weather Service NWS in the United States recommends several precautions that people should take if thunderstorms are likely to occur: .
The American Red Cross recommends that people follow these precautions if a storm is imminent or in progress: . The NWS stopped recommending the "lightning crouch" in as it doesn't provide a significant level of protection and will not significantly lower the risk of being killed or injured from a nearby lightning strike.
Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, even in the polar regions, with the greatest frequency in tropical rainforest areas, where they may occur nearly daily.
At any given time approximately 2, thunderstorms are occurring on Earth. Other cities known for frequent storm activity include Darwin , Caracas , Manila and Mumbai.
Thunderstorms are associated with the various monsoon seasons around the globe, and they populate the rainbands of tropical cyclones.
Thunderstorms are rare in polar regions because of cold surface temperatures. Some of the most powerful thunderstorms over the United States occur in the Midwest and the Southern states.
These storms can produce large hail and powerful tornadoes. Thunderstorms are relatively uncommon along much of the West Coast of the United States ,  but they occur with greater frequency in the inland areas, particularly the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys of California.
In spring and summer, they occur nearly daily in certain areas of the Rocky Mountains as part of the North American Monsoon regime.
In the Northeast , storms take on similar characteristics and patterns as the Midwest, but with less frequency and severity. During the summer, air-mass thunderstorms are an almost daily occurrence over central and southern parts of Florida.
If the quantity of water that is condensed in and subsequently precipitated from a cloud is known, then the total energy of a thunderstorm can be calculated.
This is on the same order of magnitude of energy released within a tropical cyclone, and more energy than that released during the atomic bomb blast at Hiroshima, Japan in The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor results show that gamma rays and antimatter particles positrons can be generated in powerful thunderstorms.
TGFs are brief bursts occurring inside thunderstorms and associated with lightning. The streams of positrons and electrons collide higher in the atmosphere to generate more gamma rays.
In more contemporary times, thunderstorms have taken on the role of a scientific curiosity. Every spring, storm chasers head to the Great Plains of the United States and the Canadian Prairies to explore the scientific aspects of storms and tornadoes through use of videotaping.
Thunderstorms strongly influenced many early civilizations. Greeks believed that they were battles waged by Zeus , who hurled lightning bolts forged by Hephaestus.
Some American Indian tribes associated thunderstorms with the Thunderbird , who they believed was a servant of the Great Spirit.
The Norse considered thunderstorms to occur when Thor went to fight Jötnar , with the thunder and lightning being the effect of his strikes with the hammer Mjölnir.
Hinduism recognizes Indra as the god of rain and thunderstorms. Christian doctrine accepts that fierce storms are the work of God. These ideas were still within the mainstream as late as the 18th century.
Martin Luther was out walking when a thunderstorm began, causing him to pray to God for being saved and promising to become a monk.
Thunderstorms, evidenced by flashes of lightning , on Jupiter have been detected and are associated with clouds where water may exist as both a liquid and ice, suggesting a mechanism similar to that on Earth.
Water is a polar molecule that can carry a charge, so it is capable of creating the charge separation needed to produce lightning.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of weather with lightning and thunder. For other uses, see Electrical storm disambiguation.
For the musical ensemble, see Thirty Seconds to Mars. For other uses, see Thunderstorm disambiguation. A thunderstorm near Havelsee , Germany.
Temperate and polar seasons. Winter Spring Summer Autumn. Tropical seasons. Dry season Harmattan Wet season. Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms.
See also: Cloud. Main article: Air-mass thunderstorm. Main article: Multicellular thunderstorm. Main article: Squall line.
See also: List of derecho events. Main article: Supercell. See also: Mesoscale convective system. See also: Lightning strike and Wildfire.
Main article: Hail. Main articles: Tornado and Waterspout. Main article: Flash flood. Main article: Downburst.
Main article: Thunderstorm asthma. See also: Emergency management and Tornado preparedness. See also: United States rainfall climatology. See also: Sprite lightning , Upper-atmospheric lightning , and St.
Elmo's fire. Weather portal. National Weather Service. Retrieved Retrieved 26 January National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Civil engineers' pocket book: a reference-book for engineers, contractors.
Van Nostrand Company. Ancient Chinese Inventions. Chinese International Press. Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik. Mooney Storm world: hurricanes, politics, and the battle over global warming.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Blanchard September Weather and Forecasting. American Meteorological Society. Bibcode : WtFor.. Mogil Extreme Weather.
University of Syracuse. Archived from the original on Bunkers March University of Illinois. Fujita Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes. University of Missouri-Columbia, Archived from the original PDF on September 1, Archived from the original PDF on Line echo wave pattern.
Corfidi; Jeffry S. Johns Heat burst. Hong Kong Observatory. Weather World Project. October 4, Colorado State University. Senesi Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society.
The moisture makes the cumulus cloud "mushroom" upwards and turn into a tall cumulus cloud. The winds inside this cloud are very strong.
The inside of the cloud is, by this time, cold enough so that the water drops are turned into ice crystals. A cumulus cloud stops growing when it hits the warm stratosphere.
Some thunderstorms grow twice as high as Mount Everest! Strong upper winds in the stratosphere smooth and spread the top of the cloud. The ice crystals in the anvil cloud give it a fuzzy look.
As a thunderstorm grows, water drops or ice crystals inside the cloud hit and mix with each other, getting bigger.
The bottom of the cloud grows dark with water about to fall. When the drops become so heavy that the winds inside the cloud cannot keep them up any more, they fall from the cloud as rain or hail.
But supercell thunderstorms can last for hours until they dissipate by outflow. Thunderstorms are very active with electricity  and so are also called electrical storms.
Lightning is a large electrical discharge that happens between two opposite charged surfaces. When lightning strikes, energy is let out.
This energy moves to the air and makes air spread quickly and send out sound waves. Thunder is the sound that comes from the rapid spread of air along the lightning strike.
Hailstorms damage crops, damage the metal on cars , and break windows. Sudden flash floods that happen because of heavy rains is the biggest reason for weather-related deaths.
Lightning, which happens with all thunderstorms, makes thousands of forest fires each year in the United States.
Lightning also kills or injures hundreds of people a year in the United States. Regular thunderstorms begin when warm air near the ground mix with moist air, which makes an updraft a wind that goes upward.
A severe thunderstorm needs a strong up draft and a strong down draft. A strong updraft is made when, firstly, the ground is very hot; secondly, when the air is very moist; and thirdly, the air above is very cold.
When the updraft gets stronger, so does the thunderstorm. Flash floods happen when slow-moving thunderstorms pour down much more water than usual in a small area.
It rains so hard that the water can not soak into the ground fast enough, and the water rushes down the mountainsides or hills into streams and rivers.
These streams and rivers cannot carry all the water, so it quickly floods. The most severe flash flood makes the water level rise dangerously in streams, dry places, or canyons.
Flash floods can make terrible mud slides and can move very quickly. Flash floods can also happen when two or more thunderstorms hit the same spot, one right after the other.
They can happen when a dam bursts open or ice breaks up. Flash floods can also happen when it rains very hard on quickly melting snow.
Thunderstorms do not do only damage; however, they can be a great help to man and all living creatures.
Plants receive lots of life-giving rain when they need it. Without the thunderstorms, many continents would become dry.